Car Park Ventilation System Automation Panel is very important for both ventilation of car parks and smoke control. In order for the ventilation system to work actively and efficiently, reliable systems equipped with modern technology should be preferred. Today, mostly car parks are located in city centers and structures such as shopping centers, theaters, cinemas and business centers. In such car parks, systems for fighting smoke and fire during an emergency are vital for the safe evacuation of dense crowds and for the fire brigade to respond appropriately.
According to the Turkish Fire Protection Regulation, if the total open area of the car parks used for parking of motorized transportation and transportation vehicles is more than 5% of the flooring area and at least half of this open area is on two opposite sides, an open car park is accepted. Otherwise, covered parking is accepted. A mechanical smoke evacuation system is required for closed car parks in basements with a total area of more than 2000 m2. The smoke extraction system must be independent of systems serving other parts of the building and must provide at least 10 air changes per hour.
The concept of Smoke Evacuation refers to the evacuation of smoke out of the parking lot during and after the fire is extinguished. The concept of Smoke Dilution means helping the fire brigade by diluting the smoke in the parking lot during a fire. Smoke Control, on the other hand, is very important during a fire to provide a smoke-free response route for firefighting and active firefighting operations. Smoke evacuation and dilution can be done by using natural openings on the lateral faces in accordance with regulations through natural ventilation in open car parks. In car parks that do not have sufficient openings on the lateral surfaces, sufficient openings in accordance with the regulations can be completed with additional ventilation flaps located at the ceiling level. For this reason, ducted systems or jet fan ventilation systems are preferred in parking lots.
Car Park Ventilation System Automation Board
Advanced technological panels that provide automation are used in systems with ventilation ducts or jet fans. These are smart control units. They contain advanced and up-to-date software. For this reason, automation panel is very important in parking ventilation systems. When the ventilation systems of the closed spaces inside the building are examined in general, it can be seen that the conditioned fresh air is carried from the ceiling level or a relatively high level of the space through a duct system and given to the environment from many vents or diffusers. The fresh air supplied to the environment from these grilles and diffusers triggers the air movement and mixing in the environment with the effect of induction. Fresh air is mixed with the ambient air in the room, providing a homogeneous air distribution and comfort conditions in the environment. As a basic principle, since the amount of fresh air and supply points are kept under control, the polluted air exhausted from the space remains relatively unimportant.
In the last quarter of a century, designs and applications have been made in the car parks on the principle of obtaining a certain amount of change in the car park volume per hour over an exhaust-based duct system. Supplying fresh air to car parks is relatively less important than exhaust. An indirect fresh air control is provided by keeping the amount of exhaust air under control and indirectly for the amount of fresh air. In general, it is based on the natural intake of fresh air from ramps, openings and qurangles. In extreme cases, if there is insufficient natural opening in the car park, fresh air is supplied to the car park with a limited number of fresh air fans.
In the Jet Fan Parking Lot Ventilation System, small high velocity “Jet Fans” are used instead of Ventilation Channels. The air flow is directed towards the exhaust shafts where the main exhaust fans are located. This ventilation principle was first used in tunnels and proved its validity. The entire parking lot is activated by getting the surrounding air into the air flow created by the Jet Fans. By not using the channels, the system resistance will decrease. Smaller electric motor main exhaust/fresh air fans will be used. Smoke control will be possible by trapping the smoke in certain areas by means of strategically placed jet fans. By means of strategically placed jet fans, energy savings will be achieved in daily operation by operating only the required area.
Advantages of Jet Fan System:
- The absence of Distribution Channels and the advantages it brings
- Energy saving integrated with CO System
- Flexible installation and operation possibility
- Better ventilation quality
- Smoke Control
- Brighter and more visible parking lots
- Savings in assembly costs
- Low system resistances and energy savings
As mentioned above, Jet Fan applications are based on a large number of small-sized, high-air velocities fans instead of the duct system in the parking lot. Jet Fans have been used in tunnel applications for a very long time. The principle is based on the fact that the fans create very high air velocities at the nozzles, pushing the large air masses in front of them into motion. The momentum in the high velocity air mass coming out of the fan will act on the entire environment and will set in motion a much larger air mass than the air passing through the fan by the effect of induction.
Jet Fans are strategically placed in the car park and transmit the above-mentioned air mass movement towards the exhaust shafts. Jet Fans undertake the task of air flow in the desired route in a controlled manner in the parking lot. Compared to the ducted system, they replace the duct and equipment such as vents, diffusers, dampers on it.
The main exhaust fans on the shafts should provide the amount of exhaust (ventilation amount) needed by the parking lot. The difference to be noted here is that, compared to a ducted system, the main exhaust fans located on the shafts will operate against a much lower, in some cases almost negligible resistance, since there will be no intake ducts from the shaft to the parking lot side. This difference ensures that systems with Jet Fans consume less energy in terms of operation and therefore their operation is more economical.
It can be designed as an equivalent or alternative to ducted systems by targeting “Smoke Evacuation” with jet fan systems, or it can be designed for the purpose of “Smoke Control” by taking the fight against fire and smoke one step further in an emergency.
The purpose of Smoke Control is to prevent smoke from spreading to areas of the car park away from the fire and to trap the smoke in a virtual area between the fire point and the exhaust shaft. In this way, escape routes will be clean from smoke, material damage in the parking lot will be minimized, and one of the most important points is that the fire brigade will be able to easily detect the burning vehicle and intervene immediately.
The following conclusions can be drawn on the daily parking ventilation, emergency smoke evacuation and emergency smoke control performances of jet fan systems.
- With the Jet Fan System in Daily Ventilation, a better quality air mixture and a homogeneous distribution will be achieved.
- If the jet fan system is used together with the CO detection system, it will be able to provide economy and energy savings in daily operation, since the working zones can be put into operation much more flexibly and in smaller areas than the ducted system.
- Due to the fact that the Ducted System contains less equipment and requires a simpler automation compared to the Jet Fan system, maintenance and complications during operation will be less.
- In the Jet Fan System, brighter and more spacious parking areas will be created as there will be no large channels in the parking lot.
- When “Smoke Evacuation” is aimed, successful designs can be realized with both systems. However, in the current design criteria, it will not be possible to perform “Smoke Control” with the ducted system.
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In the light of our experience and knowledge, our company has a vision that is sensitive to customer expectations, prioritizing quality, and respecting business ethics and ethical beliefs. Attaching importance to R&D studies, Fantürk aims to increase its production and service quality based on international standards. Our main goal is to be a worldwide leader organization that produces technologies that breathe for all humanity by offering innovative technologies for the benefit of humanity.